[SARAWAK, MALAYSIA] Every week, Francis Lo drives a truck down a logging road between Miri, on the Borneo coast, and the Kelabit Highlands, in the island’s interior. It’s a long, precarious journey through a region that is rapidly changing as forests disappear to loggers and remote cultures adapt to an influx of modern goods. Lo’s travels depict the dilemmas that many developing societies face with the construction of new roads.
Worldwide, a billion people live without adequate transport or access to goods and services. [1,2] Many experts say the construction of rural roads is key to alleviating poverty and boosting local economies.  Roads can link farmers to markets. They can bring jobs to remote locations. They can pave the way for children to attend school.
But others point out the high ecological price of these economic opportunities.  Roads can increase flooding, erosion, pollution and wildlife trafficking. They can also be a factor in the spread of malaria, dengue fever, diarrhoeal pathogens and sexually transmitted diseases. 
In the developing world, a road is often judged by what it does and what it can bring. Some see prospects, while others see pitfalls.
Dilemma road: Pitfalls and possibilities of development
Jerry Redfern and Karen Coates